Conversion of Waste Impoundment to Wetlands


International Paper
Mobile, Alabama


Rust, IP, and Tensar Environmental Systems, Inc.
Mobile, Alabama

International Paper needed to securely close a waste impoundment area that had received both paper sludge and lime mud waste. International Paper came up with an innovative idea of converting the impoundment into a wetland area that would support the local plant and animal habitat while meeting all State regulations required for a closure. Biaxial geogrids were used to both stabilize the lime mud areas and support a liner, which was required over the lime mud in order to sustain plant growth. Geogrids were also used to reinforce the lime mud subgrade where containment dikes were constructed to establish the wetland boundary. This innovative project was constructed in 1994 and is part of a wetlands mitigation focus.